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The influence of procedural variables on the efficacy of mental practice

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CONTRIBUTORS:
  Author Etnier, J. L. (Arizona State University)
  Author Landers, D. M. (Arizona State University)
JOURNAL:
  The Sport Psychologist, 10(1), 48 - 57.
YEAR: 1996
PUB TYPE: Journal Article
SUBJECT(S): mental-training; basketball; shooting; achievement; correlation; young-adult; man; woman
DISCIPLINE: No discipline assigned
HTTP: https://secure.sportquest.com/su.cfm?articleno=392665&title=392665
LANGUAGE: English
PUB ID: 103-341-319 (Last edited on 2002/02/27 18:44:04 US/Mountain)
SPONSOR(S):
 
ABSTRACT:
Despite evidence that mental practice (MP) improves performance (Feltz & Landers, 1983), the parameters that define the MP period have not been systematically examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the order of presentation of MP and physical practice (PP) and of the duration of MP on subsequent performance. Subjects (N = 153) were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 groups that consisted of a control group (3-min PP) and 8 groups composed of either 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7-min MP, with 3-min PP. 4 of these groups performed MP first and the other 4 performed PP first. Subjects performed a 3-min basketball shooting task for Trial 1, practiced, performed Trial 2, practiced, and performed Trial 3. Results indicated that the order of presentation of MP and PP significantly impacted performance, such that groups who received MP first improved more than did PP-first groups. The duration of the MP period also impacted performance, such that groups who received 1 min or 3 min of MP improved more than the control group or groups who received 5 min or 7 min of MP.
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